Goldenrod

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goldenrod

goldenrod meaning :Be cautious
Solidago, commonly called goldenrods, is a genus of about 100 species of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae. Most are herbaceous perennial species found in the meadows and pastures, along roads, ditches and waste areas in North America. there are also a few species native to Mexico, South America, and Eurasia. some American species have also been introduced into Europe and other parts of the world.
Solidago species are perennials growing from woody caudices or rhizomes. They have stems that can be decumbent to ascending or erect, ranging in height from 5 to 100 or more centimeters. some species have stems that branch near the top. some Solidago species are hairless others have strigose, strigillose, hispid, or short-villous hairs. the basal leaves in some species remain persistent through flowering, while in others the basal leaves are shed before flowering. the leaf margins are often serrate, and leaf faces may be hairless or densely hairy; the distal leaves are sometimes 3-nerved, and hairless or sparsely to densely hairy with scabrous, strigillose, or villous hairs. in some species the upper leaves are stipitate-glandular or sometimes resinous. the flowering heads usually radiate, sometimes discoid, with 2 to 1500+ florets in racemiform , paniculiform or corymbo-paniculiform, or sometimes secund arrays. the involucres are campanulate to cylindric or attenuate. the ray florets are pistillate and fertile. the corollas are yellow or rarely white and are usually hairless. the disc florets are bisexual and fertile and number 2 to 35 typically, but in some species there may be up to 60 florets. the corollas of the disc florets are yellow and the tubes are shorter than the throats. the fruits are cypselae, which are narrowly obconic to cylindric in shape, they are sometimes somewhat compressed. the cypselae have 8 to 10 ribs usually and are hairless or moderately covered with stiff slender bristles. the pappi are very big with barbellate bristles.
Solidago species are easily recognized by their golden inflorescence with hundreds of small capitula, some species have their flowers in spike-like inflorescences and others have axillary racemes. They have slender stems, usually hairless but S. canadensis shows hairs on the upper stem. They can grow to a length between 60 cm and 1.5 m. their alternate leaves are linear to lanceolate. their margins are usually finely to sharply serrated.
Solidago virgaurea is used in a traditional kidney tonic by practitioners of herbal medicine to counter inflammation and irritation caused of bacterial infections or kidney stones. Goldenrod has also been used as part of a tincture to aid in cleansing of the kidney/bladder during a healing fast, in conjunction with potassium broth and specific juices. Solidago odora is sold as a medicinal, for these issues: mucus, kidney/bladder cleansing and stones, colds, digestion, and a tea is made from the leaves and flowers for sore throat, snake bite, fever, kidney and bladder problems, cramps, colic, colds, diarrhea, measles, cough and asthma. a poultice is used for boils, burns, headache, toothache, wounds, and sores. Native Americans chewed the leaves to relieve sore throats and chewed the roots to relieve toothaches.

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